Dear Islamic brothers in this piece of writing we will learn answers of these questions:
What is the significance of Zakat?
When did Zakat become Fard?
What is the Definition of Zakat?
What is the ruling on denying Zakat to be a Fard act?
What amount of Zakat will be given?
On whom is Zakat Fard?
What are the punishments of not giving Zakat?
Dear brothers! Zakat is the basic pillar of Islam and became Fard in 2 Hijri before the Siyam. 1/40th part of the Nisab (i.e. 2.5%) will have to be given as Zakat. It is proven from the Holy Quran that Zakat is Fard; one who denies it is a Kafir. The Beloved Rasool صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ has stated, ‘The foundation of Islam is on five acts: To testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ and Muhammad صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ is His Rasool; to offer Salah; to pay Zakat; to perform Hajj; and to observe Sawm of Ramadan.’
(Bukhari/Kitab ul Iman)
The significance of Zakat can be observed by the fact that: Salah and Zakat have been mentioned together in the Holy Quran 32 times.
(Radd ul Mukhtar/Kitabuzakat)
Besides this, the fortunate Zakat-giving person receives great blessings and benefits of this world and the Hereafter.
Zakat is Fard
It is proven from the Holy Quran and Sunnah that Zakat is Fard. Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ has stated in the Holy Quran:
وَ اَقِیْمُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّكٰوةَ
Translation from Kanz-ul-Imaan: And establish (obligatory) prayer, and give Zakat.
(Part 1, Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 43)
Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Na’eemuddin Muradabadi رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ (who passed away in 1367 Hijri) has stated: This Ayah says about Salah and Zakat being Fard.
When the Beloved Rasool صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ sent Sayyiduna Mu’aaz رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ towards Yemen, he صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ said: Tell them that Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ has made Zakat Fard in their wealth; it should be taken from the wealthy people and given to the Fuqara [poor people.
Definition of Zakat
That wealth specified by Shari’ah is termed as Zakat from which a person discontinues his benefit in every manner and then for the pleasure of Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ, it is given into the possession of such Muslim Faqeer [Shari’ah-declared poor person], who is neither Hashmi himself nor is he a slave freed by any Hashmi.
(Durr e Mukhtar/Kitabuzakat)
On whom is Zakat Fard?
Giving Zakat is Fard on every such ‘Aaqil [sane] and Baligh [person who has reached puberty] Muslim who is not a slave and who meets the following conditions:
1 He owns Nisab.
2 This Nisab is Naami [growing in nature].
3 He has Nisab in his possession.
4 Nisab is exclusive of his Haajat-e-Asliyyah (i.e. basic necessities of life).
5 Nisab is exclusive of the money he owes (i.e. he should not owe the people such debt that his Nisab will no longer remain if he pays it).
6 A year passes on this Nisab.
(Bahar e Shariat)
Punishments of not giving Zakat
Not giving Zakat is a cause of destruction of wealth as the Beloved Rasool صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَhas said: The wealth that has got destroyed in the land and sea, it has got destroyed because of not giving Zakat.
At another place, he صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ has said: Wealth of Zakat will destroy the [wealth] in which it will be present.
Explaining the abovementioned Hadith, Mufti Muhammad Amjad Ali A’zami رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated, ‘Some great Ulama have stated the following meaning of this Hadith: If Zakat becomes Wajib on a person but he does not pay it and keeps it included in his wealth, this Haraam will destroy that Halal. Imam Ahmad رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated the following meaning: If a wealthy person takes Wealth of Zakat, this Wealth of Zakat will destroy his wealth as Zakat is for the Fuqara [poor people]. Both the meanings are correct.’
The nation which does not give Zakat can suffer from troubles collectively. The Beloved Rasoolصَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ has said: The nation which will not give Zakat, Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ will make it suffer from drought.
At another place, he صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ has said: When the people abandon paying Zakat, Allahعَزَّ وَجَلَّ stops the rain. If quadrupeds were not present on the Earth, even a single drop of waterwould not fall from the sky.
The person who does not give Zakat has been cursed, as Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ood رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ has narrated: Rasoolullah صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ has cursed the one who does not give Zakat.
Dear Islamic brothers! this is a very short writing for this important topic if you want to read details of it please visit our online book library and read many books on this topic you can also buy these books from Maktaba-tul-Madina.
May Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ enable us to learn our Deen and to act upon its teachings! Ameen.